What is the legal status of TIB and its relationship with and TI?
Set up as a Trust, TIB is an independent, non-government, non-partisan and non-profit organisation with a vision of Bangladesh in which government, politics, business, civil society and the daily lives of the people shall be free from corruption. TIB has also been registered as NGO under the NGO Affairs Bureau of the Government of Bangladesh.
In the context of the international movement against corruption, TIB is a fully accredited national chapter in Bangladesh of the Berlin-based Transparency International (TI). As such TIB partners and cooperates with TI and its chapters worldwide.
Except for the entitlements and obligations applicable for all accredited national chapters www.transparency.org TIB is fully independent in terms of its programmatic strategy, planning of work, and implementation of work. TIB also raises its own funds and receives no funds from TI unless for specific projects undertaken in collaboration with TI and/or other national chapters. In some cases grants are also received for TIB participation in events organized by TI.
How is TIB financed?
The following are TIB's main source of funding: a) Trust fund consisting of contributions of Trustees, Members, Staff, project overheads and sale proceeds; and b) funds raised from donor organisations within or outside Bangladesh for implementing specific projects. Sources of funding for TIB's activities
TIB raises funds only from donors who share its anti-corruption values and goals. We do not accept funds that might impair the independence of TIB to pursue its goals nor do we accept any contribution that requires us do anything inconsistent with our mission, or may prevent us from pursuing activities consistent with our mission.TIB's audited financial reports and accounts are available for information of anyone who may be interested.
Does TIB expose, investigate or take action against individual cases of corruption?
No, it is not in the mandate of TIB to undertake actions against individual cases of corruption, which is the function of the relevant organs of the Government including the parliamentary standing committees, judiciary, and law enforcement agencies.
TIBs task is limited to reveal, study and analyze the nature, extent and process of corruption affecting the people at large and recommend preventive and curative measures, with particular reference to strengthening of the institutions within the national integrity system.
TIB as a non-governmental civil society institution is mandated to create and strengthen a social movement against corruption through greater citizens awareness and participation. By its research, advocacy and citizens? engagement TIB is striving to contribute to the creation of conditions conducive to reducing corruption in Bangladesh.
How transparent is TIB itself?
TIB strictly upholds and practices what it preaches. The key instrument for ensuring TIB?s good governance, transparency and accountability are the Governance Manual and Code of Ethics We report what we receive, we report what we pay.
What is the Corruption Perceptions Index?
The TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), prepared under the auspices of the Berlin-based Transparency International (TI), ranks countries in terms of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. It is a composite index, a poll of polls, drawing on corruption-related data in expert surveys carried out by a variety of reputable institutions. It reflects the views of businesspeople and analysts from around the world, including experts who are resident in the countries evaluated.
Is Bangladesh the most corrupt country in the world?
No, Bangladesh is not the most corrupt country in the world. To say so represents misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI). According to the CPI released annually by TI, the level of corruption in Bangladesh has been perceived to be the highest in the world from 2001 to 2004. That does not justify that Bangladesh can be branded as the most corrupt country or most corrupt nation. TIB firmly holds the view that the vast majority of the people of Bangladesh are only victims of corruption. Corruption by a limited number of individuals and failure of leaderships and institutions to control and prevent corruption cannot justify that the country or nation be considered corrupt.
What then is implied by Bangladesh’s ranking according to CPI?
According to the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) released by Transparency International, corruption in Bangladesh has been perceived to be the highest in the world for the fourth successive year from 2001.
What is TIB's role in international ranking of Bangladesh in terms of Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)?
TIB has no role in annual international ranking of Bangladesh in terms of Corruption Perception Index (CPI). Transparency International (TI) secretariat in Berlin prepares this ranking on the basis of a composite index drawing from a poll of polls - carried out by a variety of reputable institutions. TIB, like any other National Chapter of TI, is not involved in it nor does it provide any information that goes into the index. While TIB has its own anti-corruption research, advocacy and citizens participation programmes in Bangladesh, as the national chapter of TI in Bangladesh, TIB's responsibility as far as CPI goes, is no more than facilitating its release when the report is available.
Is TIB responsible for any embarrassment caused to Bangladesh in terms of CPI?
No, nor can TI or the other institution(s) whose information are used in CPI ranking, be held responsible for the embarrassment. Those who are involved in corruption, not the whistleblowers, are responsible for the ranking, and should be held accountable.
For the purpose of the CPI, how is corruption defined?
The CPI focuses on corruption in the public sector and defines corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain. The surveys used in compiling the CPI ask questions that relate to the misuse of public power for private benefit, with a focus, for example, on bribe-taking by public officials in public procurement. The sources do not distinguish between administrative and political corruption or between petty and grand corruption.
Why is the CPI based only on perceptions?
It is difficult to base comparative statements on the levels of corruption in different countries on hard empirical data, e.g. by comparing the number of prosecutions or court cases. Such cross-country data does not reflect actual levels of corruption; rather it highlights the quality of prosecutors, courts and/or the media in exposing corruption. The only method of compiling comparative data is therefore to build on the experience and perceptions of those who are most directly confronted with the realities of corruption in a country.
Is it right to conclude that the country with the lowest score in terms of CPI is the world's most corrupt country?
No. The country with the lowest score is the one where corruption is perceived to be the highest among those included in the index. There are almost 200 sovereign nations in the world, and the latest CPI ranks 146 of them. Moreover, the index is about perception about the level of corruption it cannot brand a country or nation as corrupt. For that matter Bangladesh cannot be regarded as most corrupt country or nation.
What are the sources of data for the CPI?
The CPI 2004 draws on 18 different polls and surveys from 12 independent institutions. TI strives to ensure that the sources used are of the highest quality and that the survey work is performed with complete integrity. To qualify, the data has to be well documented, and it has to be sufficient to permit a judgment on its reliability.
Data for the CPI has been provided to TI free of charge, on a non-disclosure basis. The institutions that provided data for the CPI 2004 include: Columbia University, Economist Intelligence Unit, Freedom House, Information International, International Institute for Management Development, a multilateral development bank, Merchant International Group, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, Transparency International/Gallup International, World Bank/European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Economic Forum and World Markets Research Centre.
Since fundamental changes in the levels of corruption in a country evolve only slowly, TI opted to base the CPI on a three-year rolling average. The CPI 2004 was based on surveys provided between 2002 and 2004.
For a full list and details on questions asked, number of respondents and coverage of the 18 polls and surveys included in the CPI 2004, please see www.icgg.org.
What are the sources of data for CPI specific to Bangladesh?
In case of Bangladesh, sources that the information were drawn from in determining the ranking in 2004 included surveys conducted by Economist Intelligence Unit, Columbia University, a multilateral development bank, Gallup International, the World Economic Forum.
Whose opinion is polled by these surveys?
Surveys are carried out among businesspeople and country analysts, including surveys of residents of countries. It is important to note that residents viewpoints are found to correlate well with those of experts from abroad.
In the past, the experts surveyed in the CPI sources were often businesspeople from northern, industrialised countries; the viewpoint of less developed countries was underrepresented.
This has changed. On behalf of Transparency International, Gallup International surveyed respondents from emerging market economies, asking them to assess the performance of public servants in industrialised countries. A related approach was carried out by Information International. The results from these surveys correlate well with other sources. In sum, the CPI gathers perceptions that are broadly based, not biased by cultural preconditions, and not only generated by US and European experts.
How is the index itself computed?
TI has made considerable efforts to ensure that the methodologies used to analyse the data are of the highest quality. A detailed description of the underlying methodology is available at at www.icgg.org.
The CPI methodology used is reviewed by a Steering Committee consisting of leading international experts in the fields of corruption, econometrics and statistics. Members of the Steering Committee make suggestions for improving the CPI, but the management of TI takes the final decisions on the methodology used. The statistical work on the CPI is orchestrated at the University of Passau under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Johann Graf Lambsdorff.
What is the difference between the CPI and TI's Global Corruption Barometer?
The CPI aims at assessing levels of corruption across countries, while the Global Corruption Barometer is concerned with attitudes the general public forms visible these levels of corruption. TI expects the Global Corruption Barometer, which was first published in 2003, to provide a strong indicator over time of the impact within countries of the fight against corruption. The next edition of the Barometer is expected in December 2004.
What is the difference between the CPI and TI’s Bribe Payers Index (BPI)?
While the CPI indicates overall levels of corruption in countries, the BPI focuses on the propensity of firms from leading export countries to bribe abroad creating the supply side of corruption. The BPI therefore underlines the point that corruption in international business transactions involves those who give as well as those who take.
Is TIB an anti-government organisation?
No, not at all. TIB's work is against corruption and those who promote and protect it. The Government as well as all major political parties have identified corruption as a leading agenda. In that sense TIB's work is aimed at strengthening the hands of all those who are committed to fighting corruption in Bangladesh.
Does TIB use only newspapers as sources of research reports?
No. TIB is conducting several categories of research. Only one of them the corruption database - is based on newspapers. Source of information for all other research such as diagnostic studies series, national surveys, parliamentwatch and courtwatch series, etc., are primary data generated through extensive field investigation, fact-finding, review of official documents and papers as well as household data collection.
How can I receive TIB reports/publications?
All TIB reports and publications are available for public information use. Summaries of many of these are posted on TIB website. Others are available on request. Payment on cost-recovery basis is applicable in some cases.
The following are TIB's main source of funding:
- Trust fund consisting of contributions of Trustees, Members, Staff, project overheads and sale proceeds
- funds raised from donor organisations within or outside Bangladesh for implementing specific projects
Please find our sources of funding
TIB raises funds only from donors who share its anti-corruption values and goals. We do not accept funds that might impair the independence of TIB to pursue its goals nor do we accept any contribution that requires us do anything inconsistent with our mission, or may prevent us from pursuing activities consistent with our mission.TIB' s audited financial reports and accounts are available for information of anyone who may be interested.